Horizontal rules signify the top and bottom edges of pages. For sample references which are not included with this paper, you should consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 4th Edition. This paper is provided only to give you an idea of what a research paper might look like. You are not allowed to copy any of the text of this paper in writing your own report.
Posted on Thursday, October 3, by bill I am writing several formal academic papers at present with various presentations coming up as the target and so blogs in the near future might reflect that sort of mission. Today I present some results of some work I am doing with my co-author Joan Muysken, which stems in part from theoretical work we outlined in our book — Full Employment abandoned.
The current work formalises the influence of unemployment duration and underemployment on the inflation process. Initially, we are focusing on Australia for a December presentation but the scope of the work will generalise to a broader OECD dataset. A motivation is that underemployment has became an increasingly significant component of labour underutilisation in many nations over the last two decades.
In some nations, such as Australia, the rise in underemployment outstripped the fall in official unemployment in the period leading up to the financial crisis. Underemployment is now higher than unemployment in Australia. There is now excellent data available for underemployment from national statistical agencies, which makes it easier to examine its macroeconomic impacts.
After the major recession that beset many nations in 1990s research paper early s, unemployment fell as growth gathered pace. At the same time, inflation also moderated and this led economists to increasingly question the practical utility of the mainstream concept of the natural rate of unemployment for policy purposes, quite apart from the conceptual disagreements.
This skepticism was reinforced because various agencies produced estimates of the natural rate of unemployment now referred to in common parlance as the Non-Accelerating-Rate-of-Unemployment — or the NAIRU that declined steadily throughout the s as the unemployment rate fell.
As the unemployment rate went below an existing natural rate estimate and inflation continued to fall new estimates of the natural rate were produced, which showed it had fallen.
This led to the obvious conclusion that the concept had no predictive capacity in relation to the relationship between movements in the unemployment rate and the inflation rate. The early concept of the NAIRU argued that there was a constant and cyclically-invariant rate of unemployment which acted as a constraint against aggregate demand expansion.
Once spending pushed the level of activity that is, reduced the unemployment rate beyond that fixed level, inflation would result. This claim led to major deflationary exercises in policy in the s and s now more popularly known as austerity which only pushed the unemployment rate up further. The mainstream proponents of this policy argued that the increases were temporary although Milton Friedman at one point was forced to admit it might take 15 years for the economy to adjust.
Of-course, the adjustment was mythical given the problem was demand- rather than supply-sourced. Faced with mounting criticism, the NAIRU theorists progressively moved to a position where time variation in the steady-state was allowed but this variation is seemingly not driven by the state of demand — the so-called TV-NAIRUs.
This intermediate phase has spawned a frenetic period of estimation using a range of technical methodologies. Like the original concept, the attempts to model the time variation were based on shaky theoretical grounds.
Presumably, the evolution of unspecified structural factors have played a role, if we are to be faithful to the original flawed idea. In this theoretical void, mainstream econometricians assumed that a smooth evolution was plausible but these slowly evolving NAIRUs bear little relation to actual economic factors.
That is, no structural variables that were implicated such as welfare payments, minimum wages, etc were moving in any way that would justify the estimates of rising NAIRUs.
The rising estimated NAIRUs were used by the mainstream to justify their claims that even as the official unemployment rate rose from 2 per cent to 8 per cent in a matter of years, there was still no role for aggregate demand policy that is, fiscal stimulus because all the increase in unemployment was structural or voluntary.
It was sheer nonsense but such was the iron grip on the policy debate held by the mainstream that policy makers went along with it and economies operated well below the true potential. Most of the research output confidently asserted that the NAIRU had changed over time but very few authors dared to publish the confidence intervals around their point estimates.
What they came up with Page 39 was 95 percent confidence intervals of 2. Say the unemployment rate was currently 6 per cent. Then at the lower confidence interval bound 2. The econometricians were unable to discriminate between the two possibilities — they were equally confident that both were true.
Undaunted by these ridiculous results, the policy makers ignored the imprecision of the estimates and just focused on point estimates that is, ignoring the confidence bandswhich invariably supported their ideological preference against any government fiscal intervention.The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
This paper should be used only as an example of a research paper write-up. Horizontal rules signify the top and bottom edges of pages. For sample references which are not included with this paper, you should consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 4th Edition..
This paper is provided only to give you an idea of what a research paper might look like. The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and Child Tax Credit (CTC), which go to millions of low- and moderate-income working families each year, provide work, income, educational, and health benefits to its recipients and their children, a substantial body of research .
percent over the same period. There- fore, a client with a portfolio consisting of percent stocks and percent bonds could expect an average com-.
National rates of gun homicide and other violent gun crimes are strikingly lower now than during their peak in the mids, paralleling a general decline in violent crime, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of government data. Beneath the long-term trend, though, are big differences by decade: Violence plunged through the s, but .
National rates of gun homicide and other violent gun crimes are strikingly lower now than during their peak in the mids, paralleling a general decline in violent crime, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of government data.
|Purdue OWL // Purdue Writing Lab||Newsroom of The New York TimesThe newspaper industry has always been cyclical, and the industry has weathered previous troughs. Television 's arrival in the s began the decline of newspapers as most people's source of daily news.|
|Search form||GallagherKim Parker and Kevin T.|
|Pagination||Its contains valuable research work.|
Beneath the long-term trend, though, are big differences by decade: Violence plunged through the s, but has declined less dramatically since