This puts them at risk of serious conditions including cancer, bronchitis, and pneumonia. And it can worsen asthma.
So far the federal government has not challenged state laws legalizing commercial marijuana as long as states maintain strict rules involving sales and distribution.
This policy statement calls for a public health approach to regulating and controlling commercially legalized marijuana and urges that regulation of legalized marijuana be viewed as a public health priority. Regulation will provide oversight of a market that is currently uncontrolled and can help address the unforeseen effects of marijuana legalization.
If marijuana is legalized, federal, state, and local governments should develop, adopt, monitor, and evaluate strict regulatory mechanisms to control marijuana production, sales, and use while advancing the public health goals of preventing access by minors, protecting and informing consumers of legalized marijuana, and protecting third parties from unwanted consequences of legalized marijuana use.
These mechanisms may include taxes, age limits, product labeling requirements, product quality testing, potency limits, labeling requirements, motor vehicle operation restrictions, and advertising restrictions. After voters in Colorado and Washington elected to legalize marijuana, these states began to establish regulatory schemes for its cultivation, distribution, and retail sale to those 21 years of age and older.
Under these and other regulatory proposals, marijuana would be regulated in a manner similar to alcohol, with age limits, licensing controls, and other regulatory and public health mechanisms. The federal government decided to not challenge state laws legalizing commercial marijuana as long as states maintain strict rules involving sales and distribution.
The areas of regulatory emphasis for the federal government include preventing distribution to minors, preventing revenue from being directed to illegal enterprises, stopping drugged driving, ensuring that marijuana does not cross to states where it is illegal, preventing marijuana activity from being used as a cover for other illegal drug activity, and stopping marijuana from being grown on public land.
How will access and availability to adolescents be prevented? How will the impact on vulnerable populations be addressed? What types of quality and informational controls will protect consumers?
How will unwanted exposures and driving impairment be handled?
The density of marijuana retailers is also an issue that needs to be addressed by regulation. If retailers congregate in a few locations, the populations in those areas will be more exposed to use, misuse, and abuse of marijuana. Advertising by retailers will also need to be examined, especially in light of studies revealing that alcohol and tobacco advertising is more prevalent in communities of color and areas of lower income.
As with the smoking of tobacco, passive exposure to marijuana smoke among children, tenants of multiunit housing developments, and nonsmokers is a concern. Protection for workers who cultivate commercial marijuana is also a concern since they may be exposed to pesticides, fertilizers, and other unhealthy adulterants.
Because marijuana remains illicit, there are no mechanisms for its production to be monitored, its potency and quality to be standardized and tested, or its labeling for potential health effects before being sold. Research has shown that potency can vary widely depending on the strain of marijuana and that the drug can be contaminated by fungi and bacteria, heavy metals, pesticides, growth enhancers, and substances e.
The health effects of smoking marijuana are not fully understood.
Short-term effects include short-term memory impairment, impaired motor control, altered judgment, and, for some, paranoia and psychosis with high doses. Regulation of commercial marijuana can have positive effects on public health.
For example, evidence from the Netherlands—which has adopted a de facto legalization policy regarding retail sales and regulatory guidelines that include limits on the amount a person can buy in a day, a ban on advertisements, and a prohibition on sales to individuals under 18 years of age—indicates that the Dutch use marijuana at lower rates than some other European countries, do not escalate early use relative to other countries in Europe and the United States, and do not use marijuana as a gateway drug.
Regulatory interventions might include but should not be limited to age restrictions; taxation; time and date limitations for sales; potency and quality standardization, testing, and monitoring; advertising and packaging restrictions; place of use restrictions; extension of liability for injury to retailers; labor protections; and continued monitoring and evaluation of regulatory interventions.
Many of these interventions are used to control alcohol and tobacco use and could also be used to control the use, misuse, and abuse of commercial marijuana. Age restrictions and enhanced enforcement of age restrictions can be used to limit the use of marijuana by adolescents, just as they are used to control tobacco use and alcohol use among adolescents, which have declined significantly over the past several years.
According to the Monitoring the Future study, daily use of cigarettes by 12th graders decreased from Taxing commercial marijuana to price adolescents out of the market may also prevent many adolescents from using marijuana.
Increasing the price of cigarettes through taxes can cause adolescents to stop smoking. Marijuana use, misuse, and abuse can also be addressed by instituting time and place restrictions on commercial sales and imposing liability risks on commercial marijuana retailers.
For example, alcohol control measures that limit the number of days and hours that alcohol can be sold as well as restricting the location and density of alcohol outlets can help decrease alcohol consumption and consumption-related harms. Dram shop liability laws are effective in reducing and preventing harms associated with alcohol consumption by deterring overservice of alcohol to customers.
Although litigation involving dram shops can be expensive and inefficient, extending dram shop liability to marijuana retailers may serve as a way to reduce marijuana use, misuse, and abuse. Standardizing, testing, and monitoring potency and quality: Regulatory frameworks can also be developed to standardize and determine the quality of commercial marijuana to protect consumers from adulterants e.
Similar requirements are in already in place for alcohol sales. For example, federal law and agency rules require alcohol beverage labels to include the brand name, the class and type of alcohol, the alcoholic content, the name and address of the bottler or packer, the country of origin, and a disclosure of additives and sulfites.
Marijuana products could also be labeled to warn consumers of health risks. Labels on alcohol must also contain a specific warning about health risks. Advertising restrictions can also be used to control marijuana use and protect consumers, just as they are used for alcohol and tobacco.
Restricting advertisements can have profound health effects. For example, according to one study, a complete ban on alcohol advertising would result in 7, fewer deaths and a Concerns about driving while impaired by marijuana can be addressed with current laws against driving under the influence or by amending those laws to include marijuana impairment.
While such a standard may be useful when prosecuting a drugged driving case, a recent study questions the effectiveness of per se drugged driving laws in lowering traffic fatality rates.analysis confirmed the effect of various socio-demographic variables on smoking initiation but the authors did not find prices to be a significant determinant of youth smoking.
Chaloupka and Grossman ()  used the Monitoring the Future data on , Young people appear to be especially drawn to the device, which is discrete enough to hide. Juul is emphatic that its product is made to appeal to adults looking to switch from smoking to vaping. Published in issue: September Advancing Smoking Cessation in California’s Medicaid Population The Medi-Cal Incentives to Quit Smoking (MIQS) project aimed for successful smoking cessation in California’s Medicaid population by increasing use of the California Smokers’ Helpline (CSH), nicotine replacement patches, and economic incentives.
A time series analysis of monthly smoking prevalence in Australia over 11 years found that greater population exposure to televised media campaign advertising was associated with a faster decline in adult smoking prevalence, after adjusting for variation in tobacco prices, smokefree restaurant laws, tobacco marketing restrictions and.
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