Catholic Popes in Italy wanted architecture to express holy splendor. They commissioned churches with enormous domes, swirling forms, huge spiraled columns, multicolored marble, lavish murals, and dominant canopies to protect the most sacred altar.
Sicilian Baroque A number of ecclesiastical buildings of the Baroque period in Rome had plans based on the Italian paradigm of the basilica with a crossed dome and nave, but the treatment of the architecture was very different from what had been carried out previously.
The dynamic rhythm of columns and pilasters, central massing, and the protrusion and condensed central decoration add complexity to the structure.
There is an incipient playfulness with the rules of classic design, but it still maintains rigor. Other Roman ensembles of the Baroque and Late Baroque period are likewise suffused with theatricality and, as urban theatres, provide points of focus within their locality in the surrounding cityscape.
Probably the most well known example of such an approach is Saint Peter's Squarewhich has been praised as a masterstroke of Baroque theatre.
The piazza, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, is formed principally by two colonnades of free standing columns centred on an Egyptian obelisk. Bernini's own favourite design was his oval church of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale decorated with polychome marbles and an ornate gold dome.
His secular architecture included the Palazzo Barberini based on plans by Maderno and the Palazzo Chigi-Odescalchiboth in Rome. Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza by Francesco Borromini Bernini's rival, the architect Francesco Borrominiproduced designs that deviated dramatically from the regular compositions of the ancient world and Renaissance.
His building plans were based on complex geometric figures, his architectural forms were unusual and inventive and he employed multi-layered symbolism in his architectural designs.
Borromini's architectural spaces seem to expand and contract when needed, showing some affinity with the late style of Michelangelo.
|Dr. Marcelo Guimarães Lima at Academia.edu||Baroque and late Baroque, or Rococo, are loosely defined terms, generally applied by common consent to European art of the period from the early 17th century to the midth century.|
|A beginner's guide to Baroque art||The term covers various national styles that range from the complex and dramatic Italian art of the 17th century to the restrained genre scenes, still-lifes and portraits characteristic of the Dutch Baroque. In Italy, Caravaggio painted altarpieces and introduced innovations such as dramatic lighting effects that influenced painters like Artemisia Gentileschi.|
His iconic masterpiece is the diminutive church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontanedistinguished by a complicated plan arrangement that is partly oval and partly a cross and so has complex convex-concave wall rhythms. A later work, the church of Sant'Ivo alla Sapienzadisplays the same playful inventiveness and antipathy to the flat surface, epitomized by an unusual "corkscrew" lantern above the dome.
Following the death of Bernini inCarlo Fontana emerged as the most influential architect working in Rome. Fontana's academic approach, though lacking the dazzling inventiveness of his Roman predecessors, exerted substantial influence on Baroque architecture both through his prolific writings and through a number of architects he trained, who would disseminate the Baroque idioms throughout 18th-century Europe.
The 18th century saw the capital of Europe's architectural world transferred from Rome to Paris. The Italian Rococowhich flourished in Rome from the s onward, was profoundly influenced by the ideas of Borromini. Basilica di Superga near Turin by Filippo Juvarra The last phase of Baroque architecture in Italy is exemplified by Luigi Vanvitelli 's Caserta Palacereputedly the largest building erected in Europe in the 18th century.
Indebted to contemporary French and Spanish models, the palace is skillfully related to the landscape. At Naples and Caserta, Vanvitelli practiced a sober and classicizing academic style, with equal attention to aesthetics and engineering, a style that would make an easy transition to Neoclassicism.
Northern Italy[ edit ] In the north of Italy, the monarchs from the House of Savoy were particularly receptive to the new style.
They employed a brilliant triad of architects— Guarino GuariniFilippo Juvarraand Bernardo Vittone —to illustrate the grandiose political ambitions and the newly acquired royal status of their dynasty. Building upon the findings of contemporary geometry and stereometryGuarini elaborated the concept of architectura obliqua, which approximated Borromini's style in both theoretical and structural audacity.
Guarini's Palazzo Carignano may have been the most flamboyant application of the Baroque style to the design of a private house in the 17th century. Fluid forms, weightless details, and the airy prospects of Juvarra's architecture anticipated the art of Rococo.
The visual impact of his Basilica di Superga derives from its soaring roof-line and masterful placement on a hill above Turin. The rustic ambiance encouraged a freer articulation of architectural form at the royal hunting lodge of the Palazzina di Stupinigi Juvarra finished his short but eventful career in Madrid, where he worked on the royal palaces at La Granja and Aranjuez.
Among the many who were profoundly influenced by the brilliance and diversity of Juvarra and Guarini, none was more important than Bernardo Vittone. This Piedmontese architect is remembered for an outcrop of flamboyant Rococo churches, quatrefoil in plan and delicate in detailing.
His sophisticated designs often feature multiple vaults, structures within structures and domes within domes. Maltese Baroque architecture Reconstruction of the Wignacourt Archone of the earliest Baroque structures in Malta The Baroque style was introduced in Malta in the early 17th century, possibly by the Bolognese architect and engineer Bontadino de Bontadiniwho was responsible for the construction of the Wignacourt Aqueduct between and The earliest Baroque structures in Malta were the decorative elements within the aqueduct, such as the Wignacourt Arch and several fountains.
In the subsequent decades, many churches, public buildings, city gates, palaces and other structures were constructed or rebuilt in this style.
New churches were built in the Baroque style, while older ones were rebuilt or redecorated. The Baroque style remained popular in Malta until the late 18th and early 19th century, when the neoclassical style was introduced.Baroque art and architecture: Baroque art and architecture, the visual arts and building design and construction produced during the era in the history of Western art that roughly coincides with the 17th century.
The earliest manifestations, which occurred in Italy, . Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, Lutheran Baroque art, such as the example of Dresden Frauenkirche He forged a new Imperial style by compiling architectural motifs from the entire history, most prominently seen in his Karlskirche in Vienna.
The Baroque (US: / b ə ˈ r oʊ k / or UK: / b ə ˈ r ɒ k /) is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century. Baroque architecture is distinguished primarily by richly sculpted surfaces.
the Baroque age witnessed the rise of Palladian style architecture in England, "Baroque, in art and architecture", Columbia Encyclopedia. Accessed June 2 - "Baroque Art and Architecture", Encarta. The Baroque period in architecture and art in the s and s was an era in European history when decoration was highly ornamented and classical forms of the .
An Introduction to the Rococo Share Flipboard Email Print During the s, a highly ornamental style of art, furniture, and interior design became popular in France. While elaborate Baroque architecture is found in France, Italy, England, Spain, and South America, the softer Rococo styles found a home throughout Germany, Austria.