Abbreviationswhich includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with their expansions. Acronyms An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an acronym made up of more than the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an initial capital letter Comsat from Communications Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement. Administrative divisions This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN.
State governments of the United States States governments have the power to make laws that are not granted to the federal government or denied to the states in the U.
Constitution for all citizens. These include educationfamily lawcontract lawand most crimes. Unlike the federal government, which only has those powers granted to it in the Constitution, a state government has inherent powers allowing it to act unless limited by a provision of the state or national constitution.
Like the federal government, state governments have three branches: The chief executive of a state is its popularly elected governorwho typically holds office for a four-year term although in some states the term is two years. Except for Nebraskawhich has unicameral legislatureall states have a bicameral legislature, with the upper house usually called the Senate and the lower house called the House of Representativesthe House of DelegatesAssembly or something similar.
In most states, senators serve four-year terms, and members of the lower house serve two-year terms. The constitutions of the various states differ in some details but generally follow a pattern similar to that of the federal Constitution, including a statement of the rights of the people and a plan for organizing the government.
However, state constitutions are generally more detailed. Urban politics in the United States The United States has 89, local governments, including 3, counties, 19, municipalities, 16, townships, 13, school districts, and 37, other special districts that deal with issues like fire protection.
Typically local elections are nonpartisan—local activists suspend their party affiliations when campaigning and governing. City governments are chartered by states, and their charters detail the objectives and powers of the municipal government.
The United States Constitution only provides for states and territories as subdivisions of the country, and the Supreme Court has accordingly confirmed the supremacy of state sovereignty over municipalities. For most big cities, cooperation with both state and federal organizations is essential to meeting the needs of their residents.
Types of city governments vary widely across the nation. Cities in the West and South usually have nonpartisan local politics.
There are three general types of city government: These are the pure forms; many cities have developed a combination of two or three of them. Mayor-council[ edit ] This is the oldest form of city government in the United States and, until the beginning of the 20th century, was used by nearly all American cities.
Its structure is like that of the state and national governments, with an elected mayor as chief of the executive branch and an elected council that represents the various neighborhoods forming the legislative branch.
The mayor appoints heads of city departments and other officials, sometimes with the approval of the council.
The council passes city ordinances, sets the tax rate on property, and apportions money among the various city departments. As cities have grown, council seats have usually come to represent more than a single neighborhood.
Commission[ edit ] This combines both the legislative and executive functions in one group of officials, usually three or more in number, elected citywide.
Each commissioner supervises the work of one or more city departments. Commissioners also set policies and rules by which the city is operated. One is named chairperson of the body and is often called the mayor, although his or her power is equivalent to that of the other commissioners.
The answer has been to entrust most of the executive powers, including law enforcement and provision of services, to a highly trained and experienced professional city manager.
The city manager plan has been adopted by a large number of cities. Under this plan, a small, elected council makes the city ordinances and sets policy, but hires a paid administrator, also called a city manager, to carry out its decisions. The manager draws up the city budget and supervises most of the departments.
Usually, there is no set term; the manager serves as long as the council is satisfied with his or her work. County government[ edit ] The county is a subdivision of the state, sometimes but not always containing two or more townships and several villages.
New York City is so large that it is divided into five separate boroughs, each a county in its own right.
In other cities, both the city and county governments have merged, creating a consolidated city—county government. In small counties, boards are chosen by the county; in the larger ones, supervisors represent separate districts or townships. The board collects taxes for state and local governments; borrows and appropriates money; fixes the salaries of county employees; supervises elections; builds and maintains highways and bridges; and administers national, state, and county welfare programs.
In very small counties, the executive and legislative power may lie entirely with a sole commissionerwho is assisted by boards to supervise taxes and elections.Video: Minor (Third) Parties: Definition, Role & Examples The following lesson will introduce the concept of third parties, as well as explain their .
SMALLER THIRD PARTIES: AMERICAN PARTY - The AP is a very small, In a directly related coup, this party wrested control of the American Independent Party of California away from the Constitution Party, thus capturing ballot status in the state for the / elections.
Unlike most of the other political parties on this page with. Overview. The need to win popular support in a republic led to the American invention of voter-based political parties in the s. Americans were especially innovative in devising new campaign techniques that linked public opinion with public policy through the party.
OTHER PARTIES (Parties that have yet to field or endorse any candidates for office) AMERICAN EAGLE PARTY (AMERICAN FREEDOM UNION) - Launched in , the AEP is the political party of the white supremacist splinter group American Freedom Union, which formed from a split in the American Freedom Party. The Winner-Take-All System.
The single most important reason for a two-party system is the winner-take-all electoral system. In contrast to systems with proportional representation, the winner in American elections is the one who receives the largest number of votes.
] An up-to-date comprehensive information on Laws and Regulations pertinent to economic, commercial, and business activities in Egypt could be found at: (1) The Egyptian Investment Portal (Economic Laws), (2) The Egyptian Investment Portal (other Laws and Regulations) where over 40 statutes could be downloaded or viewed online, and (3) The American.