Individual national and expansion histories referred to each other in varying degrees at different times but often also reinforced each other. Transfer processes within Europe and in the colonies show that not only genuine colonial powers such as Spain and England, but also "latecomers" such as Germany participated in the historical process of colonial expansion with which Europe decisively shaped world history. In turn, this process also clearly shaped Europe itself. Introduction In world history, no continent has possessed so many different forms of colonies and none has so incomparably defined access to the world by means of a civilising mission as a secular programme as did modern Europe.
The dynamic of contemporary US imperialism is built around two structural features: We will argue that the empire is no longer based on robust overseas growth but rather the empire today is a costly and declining proposition.
We will proceed to outline the costs of militarized imperialism and the relative economic decline of the empire. We will then turn to analyzing how the US imperial state has resorted to financing the empire though its regressive tax, regulator and budgetary policies.
The US dominated world trade, and led global investments, as well as Colonialism imperialism as the leading force creating the international financial institutions World Bank, the IMF.
US empire further ensured global ascendance with the demise of the USSR, the absorption of the ex-Soviet client states and the pillage of the Russian economy.
The US empire was redefined through its military capacity to overthrow independent regimes, to carry on multiple wars, and to simultaneously fund overseas economic conquests while maintaining dynamic domestic growth.
The empire builders pillaged Russia but failed to build a viable productive satellite. In contrast, Germany profitably incorporated the post-Communist economies into the European Union.
The Colonialism imperialism builders unipolar vision led them to endless billion-dollar wars, which did not finance themselves and reduced the US global economic presence as a source of profits.
In response to military demands for state financing, MNC sought lower taxs, cheap labor and lurative overseas markets. De-industrialization was accompanied by the financialization of the US economy.
The imperial state was a two-faced Janus: Military induced deficits and multiple and inconclusive wars led empire builders to make further demands on the economy. The financial-military empire was a cost not a benefit to the economic empire.
The empire builders turned to intensifying the exploitation,of the domestic labor market, reallocating the federal budget and reducing taxes for economic elite. The US redefined empire building as exploiting the domestic economy to militarize the empire.
Washington debated two parallel options: Both options depended on lowering labor costs, concentrating wealth and reducing labor and welfare. President Trump chose a protectionist-militarist strategy designed to bring overseas capital to the US domestic market through military and trade threats in order to intimidate adversaries.
Both approaches were basically premised on domestic colonialism. The Elements of Internal Colonialism The run-up to the financial crises of and the trillion-dollar bail-out led to the pillage of the state and deepened the financialization of the economy. Theses shifts in the economy were accompanied by regressive changes in the tax burden: National states competed to lower taxes for the elite which led to reducing welfare spending; deregulation of the banking and energy sector led to the rise of speculative capital.
Global capital grew at the expense of the domestic economy; the growth of financial capital reduced the income of the working and middle class; costly imperial wars increased the commercial deficit; low paid, temporary employment in the services became the norm.
Health and environmental conditions deteriorated. The imperial state faced two choices to further marginalize the majority or to turn toward a protectionist policy which in effect sought to direct mass discontent outwardly toward economic and military competitors.
The election of Trump led to the adoption of a policy of deepening deregulation, increasing the concentration of wealth, massive tax reductions for the MNCa trade war for local capitala protectionist policy for labor unions and a war policy to satisfy the ideological warlords.
China and the Commercial Deficit The Trump regime backed by the Democrats sought to sustain at militarized imperialism by fabricating a Russian war threat in Syria, Ukraine, UK the toxin spy caper The Democrats promoted the Russian conspiracy to control the US presidential elections.
Trump sought to avoid facing the impending failure of its trickle down economic policy, by blaming China, of unfairly exploiting the US via one-sided trade, investment and technology relations - all leading to large trade deficits.
Contrary to Trump, the tradedeficit has everything to do with the perverse economic structure and policies of the US, which its ruling elites created. US exports from China account for nearly one-third of the deficit. Washington is unable and unwilling to coerce or attract the MNC to return to the US even with generous tax incentives.
Secondly, the trade deficit is a result of growing US military spending in multiple and continuing wars, instead of increasing investment in export sectors.
In contrast, China increases its public investments in high growth export sectors which add value and secure new markets. Thirdly, the US restricts exports of high tech and military technology to China to further the interests of the warlord economy, leading to the loss of markets and the ability to lower the deficits.
This is a win-win situation: If the US invested their profits in constantly upgrading its technology it could continue to retain markets, and profits and its export advantages. The US threat of a trade war against China will devastate US exports in technology, transport, agriculture and advanced industries, while undermining the domestic consumer sectors.
The net result will be the reduction of employment, income and trade.There is no unanimity amongst scholars regarding the impact of Western Colonialism and Imperialism on Asia and Africa. On the one hand, some scholars hold that it greatly contributed to the civilizing of the backward people and contributed to the improvement of their living standards.
US Empire: Global Imperialism and Internal Colonialism. By James Petras. Introduction: The dynamic of contemporary US imperialism is built around two structural features: the drive toward global military expansion, conquest and occupation backed by the intensification of exploitation of domestic labor and pillage of the domestic economy.
Trevor Getz is an Assoc. Professor of African history at San Francisco State University and author of Slavery and Reform in West caninariojana.com has co-authored several textbooks including Exchanges: A Global History and the forthcoming African caninariojana.comd as an Africanist, he was a Fulbright Scholar at the University of the Western Cape and the University of Stellenbosch in South Africa.
Colonialism is the extension of a nation's sovereignty over territory beyond its borders by the establishment of either settler colonies or administrative dependencies in which indigenous populations are directly ruled or displaced. Colonizing nations generally dominate the resources, labor, and markets of the colonial territory, and may also impose socio-cultural, religious and linguistic.
Sep 18, · Imperialism often produces colonialism, and colonialism is an integral part of imperialism. Definitionally, imperialism means a policy of extending a country's power . Colonialism is the policy of a foreign polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion, and health..
The European colonial period was the era from the 15th.