Marx studied law at the University of Bonn and later at Berlin, where he switched to studying philosophy. He moved again to the University of Jena, where he wrote a doctoral dissertation on ancient Greek natural philosophy. Following the death of his father inMarx attempted to find a job as lecturer but ran into difficulties because of controversies surrounding his teacher and mentor Bruno Bauer —who had lost his professorship due to his unrepentant atheism. Marx decided instead to try journalism and became editor of the Rhenish Gazette, a liberal newspaper in Cologne but the paper ran afoul of government censors and closed in
Immanuel Kant German philosopher. Considered one of the most important and influential figures in Western philosophy, Kant developed a comprehensive philosophical system in which he analyzed the foundations of metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics.
In the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant decisively altered the development of modern philosophy by insisting on a separation of the "sensible" and "intelligible" worlds, that which can be perceived by the senses and that which can be ascertained only by the intellect.
He applied this distinction to the ethical German philosophers essay in the Critique of Practical Reason, wherein he argued that an individual's moral decisions are based on rational precepts that are independent of experience in the world and therefore display the exercise of free will.
In his study of the basis of aesthetic discrimination, the Critique of Judgment, Kant continued this line of thinking, suggesting that nature, like humanity, has an ideal purpose—a German philosophers essay end that is revealed by the overall "fitness of things. His family belonged to the Pietist branch of the Lutheran church, a sect that placed great emphasis on austerity and virtue.
Kant's father, a saddler, was of modest means, but through the influence of a local pastor, Kant acquired an excellent formal education. From to Kant studied at the local Gymnasium, a Pietist school offering intensive study in Latin. Kant's father died inleaving him without income.
Kant found employment as a private tutor for the children of distinguished families, which enabled him to acquire the social graces expected of men of letters at that time.
After completion of his degree inhe spent fifteen years as a non-salaried lecturer, his income derived entirely from modest student fees, and he continued to write prolifically on scientific subjects.
His inaugural thesis, De mundi sensibilis atque intelligibilis forma et principiis dissertatio Dissertation on the Form and Principles of the Sensible and Intelligible Worldspublished the same year, is important for its distinction between sense and understanding, a key concept in his philosophical system.
Kant published little while he composed his Critique of Pure Reason, which appeared ininitiating the series of extraordinary works that ultimately brought him widespread recognition for his Critical Philosophy.
For the next twenty years, Kant's reputation as a leading spokesman of Enlightenment thought increased as he continued to write prolifically on philosophy, religion, and political theory.
A treatise on theology, Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der blossen Vernunft ; Religion within the Limits of Reason Alonewhich denied the supernatural elements of Christianity, resulted in a government ban on future writings by Kant on religious subjects.
AroundKant's health, which had always been precarious, began to deteriorate. After relinquishing his university position in NovemberKant rarely left his house and experienced increasing difficulty in following his customary work habits.
He died in Major Works Kant's major philosophical principles are contained in the three Critiques.
While the first of these works, Critique of Pure Reason, has often been criticized for the density of its style, attributed by scholars to Kant's reliance on the scholastic jargon of Wolff and his followers, the clarity and originality of the philosophical concepts articulated in the treatise are universally acknowledged.
In Critique of Pure Reason, Kant systematically analyzed the foundations of human knowledge. The majority of the book is devoted to a "Transcendental Doctrine of Elements," wherein Kant elaborates his epistemology; this is followed by a much shorter "Transcendental Doctrine of Method," which outlines the proper application of "pure reason.
In all three areas Kant sought to determine if it was possible to prove the validity of "a priori synthetic statements," that is, philosophical propositions that are not only true without reference to experience, but which also expand our knowledge.
In the process, Kant effected what he called a "Copernican revolution" in philosophy: Like the first Critique, Kant's second major treatise, Critique of Practical Reason, is subdivided into a table of "Elements" and a "Methodology.
In Critique of Pure Reason, Kant distinguishes between phenomenal and noumenal reality—that which appears to us through the senses and that which lies behind appearances.
In the second Critique, he draws a similar distinction. On a purely phenomenal level, Kant explains, individuals are conditioned by the law of causality, which states that every effect has a predetermined cause.
Practically speaking, this would destroy the possibility of freedom. Kant also suggests, however, that the individual is aware of himself as a purely rational, intelligible being. As such, an individual's actions may be conditioned by sensuous motives or grounded in the moral law, the "categorical imperative," which requires us to "act only on that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.
In Critique of Judgment, Kant discusses judgments of taste and purposiveness in nature. In the contemplation of a beautiful object, Kant explains, the person experiences a free play of the understanding and the imagination.
In the second part of Critique of Judgment, Kant rejects the then fashionable mechanistic argument as an explanation for the harmony of parts in organisms, as well as the theological argument that it is the product of an intelligent design.
Rather, purposiveness in nature must be adopted as a methodological assumption in any scientific explanation. Critical Reception Kant's Copernican turn in philosophy marks a revolution in philosophical methodology that spawned a whole generation of followers, critics, and disagreeing interpreters of his thought.
Kant greatly influenced Johann Gottlieb Fichte's idealism, which along with a fuller appreciation of the third Critique fueled German Romanticism, especially Friedrich Schelling and Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller Later philosophers, such as Arthur Schopenhauer and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegeldeveloped particular aspects of Kant's thought in their own philosophies, as did other idealists such as Josiah Royce The essay on Kant is not really enlightening.
I have read Kant's works recently and I have to admit that Roger Scruton (who wrote the essay) tries his best to c This is a collection of four Introductions to the four mentioned German philosophers.4/5.
One weekend last June, in an auditorium in the German city of Karlsruhe, the philosopher Peter Sloterdijk celebrated his seventieth birthday by listening to twenty lectures about himself. German idealism is the name of a movement in German philosophy that began in the s and lasted until the s.
The most famous representatives of this movement are Kant, Fichte, Schelling, . Kantianism is the normative moral theory of ethics which was proposed by the 18th century German philosopher Immanuel Kant.
Immanuel Kant lived at the height of the European enlightenment and he believed that reason is as important in moral philosophy as it is in epistemology. Adelbert von Chamisso ( ) was a French-born, German natural scientist and writer. As denoted by the nobiliary particle von in his name, the Chamissos were part of the aristocracy and held an ancestral seat in Champagne, France.
Free Essay: In this short paper, I will try to explain German philosopher Martin Heidegger's concept Being-in-the-World in his major work Being and Time.