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Longevity risk - the risk of paying out on pensions and annuities for longer than anticipated - is significant when measured from a financial Longevity final paper.
At the same time, pension funds are increasingly looking to transfer this risk. The Joint Forum is therefore publishing this forward-looking report on longevity risk transfer markets that makes a set of recommendations to policymakers and supervisors: To reduce the potential for regulatory arbitrage, supervisors should communicate and cooperate internationally and cross-sectorally on longevity risk transfer.
Understand longevity risk exposures: Supervisors should seek to ensure that holders of longevity risk under their supervision have the appropriate knowledge, skills, expertise and information to manage it.
To inform their policy towards longevity risk transfer markets, policymakers should review their explicit and implicit policies with regard to where longevity risk should reside. They should also be aware that social policies may have consequences for both longevity risk management practices and the functioning of longevity risk transfer markets.
Review longevity risk rules and regulations: Policymakers should review rules and regulations pertaining to the measurement, management and disclosure of longevity risk. This will help establish or maintain appropriately high qualitative and quantitative standards, including provisions and capital requirements for expected and unexpected increases in life expectancy.
Ensure adequate risk-bearing capacity: Policymakers should consider ensuring that institutions taking on longevity risk, including pension fund sponsors, are able to withstand unexpected, as well as expected, increases in life expectancy.
Policymakers should closely monitor the liquidity risk transfer taking place between corporates, banks, re insurers and the financial markets, including the amount and nature of the longevity risk transferred, and the interconnectedness this gives rise to.
Pay attention to tail risk: Supervisors should take into account that longevity swaps may expose the banking sector to longevity tail risk, possibly leading to risk transfer chain breakdowns.
Policymakers should support and foster the compilation and dissemination of more granular and up-to-date longevity and mortality data that are relevant for the valuations of pension and life insurance liabilities.
An earlier version of this report was issued for consultation in August The changes made to the consultation document are further detailed in the annex to the final report.
The Joint Forum thanks those who provided feedback and comments as these were instrumental in revising and finalising the report and its recommendations.We no longer have to guess. Harvard Medical School released a paper outlining the only five exercises we need to practice to get the best outcome for our bodies.
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We excluded participants with more than 80% missing variables (N=), resulting in , (54% women) participants included in the main analyses. In the secondary analysis, which considered only healthy individuals, we excluded any UK Biobank participants who had any major disease or disorder before inclusion to the study (i.e.
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