Sumerian clay tabletcurrently housed in the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicagoinscribed with the text of the poem Inanna and Ebih by the priestess Enheduannathe first author whose name is known  Clay tablets were used in Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium BC.
Scientists find a practical test for string theory January 6,Towson University This is an image of a two-dimensional hypersurface of the quintic Calabi-Yau three-fold. String theory is infamous as an eloquent theoretical framework to understand all forces in the universe —- a so-called "theory of everything" —- that can't be tested with current instrumentation because the energy level and size scale to see the effects of string theory are too extreme.
Yet inspired by Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton, Towson University scientists say that precise measurements of the positions of solar-system bodies could reveal very slight discrepancies in what is predicted by the theory of general relativity and the equivalence principle, or establish new upper limits for measuring the effects of string theory.
The Towson-based team presents its finding today, January 6,between 10 a. The work also appears in the journal Classical and Quantum Gravity.
String theory hopes to provide a bridge between two well-tested yet incompatible theories that describe all known physics: Einstein's general relativity, our reigning theory of gravity; and the standard model of particle physics, or quantum field theorywhich explains all the forces other than gravity.
String theory posits that all matter and energy in the universe is composed of one-dimensional strings. These strings are thought to be a quintillion times smaller than the already infinitesimal hydrogen atom and thus too minute to detect indirectly. Similarly, finding signs of strings in a particle accelerator would require millions of times more energy than what has been needed to identify the famous Higgs boson.
Fable has it that Galileo dropped two balls of different weights from the Tower of Pisa to demonstrate how they would hit the ground at the same time.
Years later Newton realized that the same experiment is being performed by Mother Nature all the time in space, where the moons and planets of the solar system fall continuously toward each other as they orbit around their common centers of mass. Newton used telescope observations to conclude that Jupiter and its Galilean moons fall with the same acceleration toward the Sun.
The same test could be used for string theory, Overduin said. The gravitational field couples to all forms of matter and energy with precisely the same strength, an observation that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity and is now enshrined in physics as the equivalence principle.
String theory predicts violations of the equivalence principle because it involves new fields which couple differently to objects of different composition, causing them to accelerate differently, even in the same gravitational field.
Building on work done by Kenneth Nordtvedt and others beginning in the s, Overduin and his collaborators consider three possible signatures of equivalence principle violation in the solar system: To date, there is no evidence for any of these effects.
Indeed, the standard astronomical ephemeris assumes the validity of Kepler's Third Law in deriving such fundamental quantities as the length of the Astronomical Unit. But all observations in science involve some degree of experimental uncertainty.
The approach of Overduin's team is to use these experimental uncertainties themselves to obtain upper limits on possible violations of the equivalence principle by the planets, moons and Trojan asteroids in the solar system. And both have Trojan companions.String theory posits that all matter and energy in the universe is composed of one-dimensional strings.
These strings are thought to be a quintillion times smaller than the already infinitesimal. Pearson Prentice Hall and our other respected imprints provide educational materials, technologies, assessments and related services across the secondary curriculum.
CHAPTER 5 Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing The word critical here has a neutral meaning.
It doesn’t mean taking a neg-ative view or finding fault, as when someone criticizes another person for. Cuneiform or Sumero-Akkadian cuneiform, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians. It is distinguished by its wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets, made by means of a blunt reed for a stylus.
The name cuneiform itself simply means "wedge shaped".. Emerging in Sumer in the late fourth millennium BC (the Uruk IV period) to convey the Sumerian language, which was a. Despite the fact that many of the existing blank template examples are rather minimal in nature, blank templates have their own set of benefits, foremost among which is the cost factor – most of the blank template formats may be downloaded for free from the Internet and you are not required to pay a cent.
CHAPTER 2: PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS A student’s level of phonological awareness at the end of kindergarten is one of the strongest predictors of As students participate in a variety of reading, writing, and oral language activities, teachers use focused observation to assess.