Sartre's Life Sartre was born in in Paris. This was his passport to a teaching career.
Method[ edit ] Social scientists are divided into camps of support for particular research techniques. These disputes relate to the historical core of social theory positivism and antipositivism ; structure and agency.
While very different in many aspects, both qualitative and quantitative approaches involve a systematic interaction between theory and data.
For example, a researcher concerned with drawing a statistical generalization across an entire population may administer a survey questionnaire to a representative sample population.
By contrast, a researcher who seeks full contextual understanding of an individuals' social actions may choose ethnographic participant observation or open-ended interviews.
Studies will commonly combine, or triangulatequantitative and qualitative methods as part of a multi-strategy design. Sampling[ edit ] Typically a population is very large, making a census or a complete enumeration of all the values in that population infeasible.
A sample thus forms a manageable subset of a population. In positivist research, statistics derived from a sample are analysed in order to draw inferences regarding the population as a whole.
The process of collecting information from a sample is referred to as sampling. Sampling is quicker and cheaper than a complete census of a population.
Methodological assumptions[ edit ] Social research is based on logic and empirical observations. Ragin writes in his Constructing Social Research book that "Social research involved the interaction between ideas and evidence. Ideas help social researchers make sense of evidence, and researchers use evidence to extend, revise and test ideas.
It should never lead or be mistaken with philosophy or belief. Social research aims to find social patterns of regularity in social life and usually deals with social groups aggregates of individualsnot individuals themselves although science of psychology is an exception here. Research can also be divided into pure research and applied research.
Pure research has no application on real life, whereas applied research attempts to influence the real world. There are no laws in social science that parallel the laws in natural science.
A law in social science is a universal generalization about a class of facts. A fact is an observed phenomenonand observation means it has been seen, heard or otherwise experienced by researcher.
A theory is a systematic explanation for the observations that relate to a particular aspect of social life. Concepts are the basic building blocks of theory and are abstract elements representing classes of phenomena. Axioms or postulates are basic assertions assumed to be true.
Propositions are conclusions drawn about the relationships among concepts, based on analysis of axioms. Hypotheses are specified expectations about empirical reality derived from propositions.
Social research involves testing these hypotheses to see if they are true. Social research involves creating a theory, operationalization measurement of variables and observation actual collection of data to test hypothesized relationship.
Social theories are written in the language of variables, in other words, theories describe logical relationships between variables.
Variables are logical sets of attributes, with people being the "carriers" of those variables for example, gender can be a variable with two attributes: Variables are also divided into independent variables data that influences the dependent variables which scientists are trying to explain.
For example, in a study of how different dosages of a drug are related to the severity of symptoms of a disease, a measure of the severity of the symptoms of the disease is a dependent variable and the administration of the drug in specified doses is the independent variable.
Researchers will compare the different values of the dependent variable severity of the symptoms and attempt to draw conclusions. Guidelines for "good research"[ edit ] When social scientists speak of "good research" the guidelines refer to how the science is mentioned and understood.
It does not refer to how what the results are but how they are figured. Glenn Firebaugh summarizes the principles for good research in his book Seven Rules for Social Research. The first rule is that "There should be the possibility of surprise in social research.
Rule 4 advises researchers to replicate, that is, "to see if identical analyses yield similar results for different samples of people" p.Social research is a research conducted by social scientists following a systematic plan. Social research methodologies can be classified as quantitative and qualitative..
Quantitative designs approach social phenomena through quantifiable evidence, and often rely on statistical analysis of many cases (or across intentionally designed treatments in an experiment) to create valid and reliable.
5 is not only important for the researcher to know the research techniques/ methods, but also the scientific approach called methodology.
Research Approaches. There are several important aspects to research methodology. This is a summary of the key concepts in scientific research and an attempt to erase some common misconceptions in science. Explain the philosophy of research; Provide an overview of methodology and methods; Explain research traditions and different schools of thought; This section deals with the philosophy of research and research methodology.
Methodology . Imre Lakatos' philosophical and scientific papers are published here in two volumes. Volume I brings together his very influential but scattered papers on the philosophy of the physical sciences, and includes one important unpublished essay on the effect of Newton's scientific achievement.
By Steve Borgatti. Discussion drawn from: Glaser and Strauss. The Discovery of Grounded Theory.; Strauss and Corbin.
Basics of Qualitative Research.